Journal of the Japan Society of Erosion Control Engineering, Vol.65,No.1, 2012

Experimental study on the factors leading to unique hydrograph of snowmelt]type volcanic mudflow caused by covering of pyroclastic materials

Hideyuki ITOH, Mario YOSHIDA, Takahiko NAGAYAMA, Kanji WAKIYAMA, Norikuni HARADA and Tomoyuki NANRI


Abstract

Snowmelt]type mudflow is often observed when a pyroclastic flow, surge, blast or a hot]debris avalanche moves over a snow]covered slope. We constructed the experimental equipment to simulate snowmelt due to high]temperature rock fragments moving over a snow]covered channel. The experiments were carried out for nine different cases, changing the parameters of temperature, rock particle diameter, and snow density. On comparing the hydrographs of these nine cases, we found that the following conditions lead to rapid snowmelt and large peak flow:(1) the temperature of the pyroclastic material is sufficiently high;(2) the snow density is remarkably high, as in the case of solid ice; and (3) snow is saturated with liquid water, as in the case of slush. The results indicate that the volume of the snowmelt]type mudflow particularly depends on the snow density and the temperature of the pyroclastic materials.
Key wordsFsnowmelt type mudflow, snowmelt experiment, snow density, pyroclastic flow, initial snowmelt water

Key wordsFsnowmelt type mudflow, snowmelt experiment, snow density, pyroclastic flow, initial snowmelt water


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